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Tactical Trainer

Welcome to the Tactical Trainer

The purpose and function of this site is to
serve as an information platform where different solutions for room entry can be studied closely.
It is possible through this site to learn more about Close Quarter Battle. It can provide a strong foundation to efficiently conduct room combat.
This is a source of inspiration, not a standard solution.

Use the left menu to navigate around this site. Please use the CONTACT form if you have any questions or the FORUM if you wish to discuss a topic.

 

  CLOSE QUARTER BATTLE

Battles that occur in close quarters, such as within a room or hallway, must be planned and executed with care. Use room clearing techniques when the tactical situation calls for "room to room clearing" with enemy combatants and non-combatants. Units must train, practice, and rehearse the techniques until each team member operates smoothly. Each operator must understand the principles of room clearing, such as surprise, speed, and controlled violence of action.

Surprise
Surprise is the key to a successful assault in close quarters. The entry team clearing the room must achieve the element of surprise, if only for seconds, by deceiving, distracting, or startling the enemy. Sometimes stun grenades are used to achieve the surprise. Surprise is when your entry is not compromised.

Speed
Speed provides a measure of security to the entry team and allows the operators to use the first few vital seconds of surprise to their maximum advantage. Speed is moving only as fast as you can shoot accurately. .

Violence of Action
Violence of action eliminates or neutralizes the enemy while giving the least chance of inflicting friendly casualties. Violence of action is not limited to the application of firepower only. It involves an operator's mind-set of complete domination. Each of the principles concerning precision room clearing has a synergistic relationship to the others. If you don't combine speed and surprise you can't have violence of action.

BASIC


Most missions will require using a combination of stealth and dynamic techniques. Stealth is a slow and quiet approach to the area to be cleared.
When all are in place and not compromised, you switch to dynamic techniques with speed, surprise, and violence of action. Room clearing is generally accomplished using a four man team. Entry does not always require four operators. If a specific room is too small or there are less than four operators, the room may be cleared with less. However, never clear a room with less than two operators and one to provide backup. Choose the entry technique based on the mission, layout of the room and the team's ability.

The terms "point of domination" refers to the two corners of the room assigned to the number ❶ & ❷ operators. These points allow the team to gain control of the objective. Each team member is assigned a different, but interlocking field of fire / AOR (Area of Responsibility). This ensures mutual supporting fire. CQB is dynamic in nature. When completed with precision, it overwhelms the enemy and allows the team to move on to the next objective very quickly. When a room is cleared, the exiting procedure for leaving the room varies depending on the location of the entry point

Read systems and no read systems

Two different types of entry are read systems and no read systems. In no read systems the direction to move in the room is predetermined. In read systems you have to watch the operator in front of you and then go to the opposite direction.

Predetermined
Some teams use the technique of predesignating which way each man will move after entering a room. For example, First man always goes left. The second always goes right, or vice versa.

The path of least resistance
When using a doorway as the point of entry, the path of least resistance is determined initially based on the way the door opens. If the door opens inward the operator plans to move away from the hinges. If the door opens outward, the operator plans to move toward the hinged side. Upon entering, the size of the room, enemy situation, and furniture or other obstacles that hinder or channel movement become factors that influence operator ❶'s direction of movement. The point of using this technique is to get the first man into the room as quickly as possible to allow him to clear the "fatal funnel" rapidly, allowing the rest of the team to make a smooth entry rather than bogged down at the fatal funnel.

Immediate threat
Another method is to allow operator ❶ to pick his direction based on immediate threat. His partner then takes the opposite side of the room. This can only be done once the assault has been initiated.

Buttonhook
Operator ❶ always makes a turn around the doorframe, clearing a large portion of the room while entering. Operator ❷ then moves across the doorway and clears the hard corner. If Operator ❶ sees a threat when he enters he will move to it and Operator
will take the opposite AOR of the room.

The Stack up

Once the approach to the room or building has been completed, the team stacks in a single file to ease the flow into the room, parallel to the outside wall. Muzzle discipline and awareness is vital. Operator ❶ provides security on the entry point. This point is usually a door. Operator provides security to the front of the team. Operators ❸ & ❹ cover opposite threat areas in the stack, and if none exist the weapon is placed is in ready position. Operators should get as close as possible to the operator in front of him. A support element should cover the rear of the entry team.
When the situation allows, it is important to ensure that each team member is prepared to enter the entry point to the room before the assault. This is achieved while in the stack position.
When operator ❹ is ready, he squeezes the shoulder of operator ❸ with the non-firing hand. This action continues up the line. When the signal reaches operator ❶, he knows that the rest of the team are ready to follow him into the room. If the team decides to use a flash grenade. Operator
shows the grenade to operator ❶ instead of squeezing the shoulder. (The grenade is shown to the front man, by holding it up in front of his eyes, while he continues to provide cover).
If someone inside opens the door before this sequence is completed
, the team will immediately enter the room.
If the team uses the technique of predesignating, the operators  stack tight with the weapon oriented in the direction he will move when he enters the room. If he is to clear to the left, his weapon will be on the left side of the operator in front of him. This ensures rapid target acquisition without sweeping his weapon across the body of the man in front.

BREACHING

Part of room clearing is the ability to quickly gain access to the rooms needing clearing. Breaching techniques vary based on the type of construction encountered and the types of munitions available to the breaching element. Techniques range from simple mechanical breaching to complex, specialized demolitions. A closed door is considered locked in all cases when a breacher is present, assuming the breacher has the means available to defeat the lock. Once the other team members are stacked, the breacher moves to the door and breaches it on the signal of operator . The breacher then steps back in order to clear the path for the team. If no breaching equipment is available, a quick attempt to open the door, from the side may be made. If the door is locked, it is kicked open. However, this should be the last choice for defeating a locked door. Kicking generally requires more than one attempt. After the first attempt, the breacher's chances of drawing fire through the door are significantly increased.

Read more of this in BREACHING.

ROOM ENTRY

The entire team enters the room as quickly and smoothly as possible and clears the doorway immediately. If possible the team moves from a covered or concealed position already in their entry order. Ideally, the team arrives at and passes through the entry point without having to stop.
The door is the focal point of anyone in the room. It is known as the fatal funnel , because it focuses attention at the precise point where the individual team members are the most vulnerable. Moving into the room quickly reduces the chance anyone will be hit by enemy fire directed at the doorway. The team may choose to create a diversion (use a stun-hand grenade) to momentarily distract the defender while it enters and achieves domination of the room.
On the signal to go, the clearing team moves through the door quickly and takes up positions inside the room that allow it to completely dominate the room and eliminate the threat. Team members stop movement only after they have cleared the door and reached their designated point of domination. Each member of the team must know his sector of fire (AOR) and how his sector overlaps and links with the sectors of the other team members. Team members do not move to the point of domination and then engage their targets. They engage targets as they move to their designated point. However, engagements must not slow movement to their points of domination. Team members may shoot within a range of as little as 1 to 2 inches. They engage the most immediate enemy threats first. Examples of immediate threats are enemy personnel who are:

● Armed and prepared to return fire immediately.
● Blocking movement to the position of domination.
● Within arm's reach of a clearing team member.
● Within 3 to 5 feet of the breach point.


 

CLEAR A CONNECTED ROOM

Open door:
If the door to the connected room is open, and a threat is identified in the room, it may be engaged from the cleared room. The team stacks in preparation for entry into the next room. When the team leader declares the first room clear, the team will automatically stack on the entrance to the next room. If the team is spread out in the room, crossing the doorway would not only place a team member in the fatal funnel unnecessarily, it could also mask the cover fire of other team members. Therefore it might be necessary to stack up on both sides of the door.

Closed door:
Standard room clearing SOP.

CLEAR A FLOOR

When clearing a single floor complex, the principles discussed in room clearing and connecting room clearing are used. The only added features are the hallways and an additional teams and faseline.

CLEAR A STAIRWAY

When multilevel structures are encountered, stairs become an added obstacle that will require manoeuvring. One of the most dangerous situations that a team is likely to encounter is a stairway with a turn between floors. Besides a blind spot at the turn, these stairways often have a loft that overlooks the bottom portion of the stairway. If the team is ascending, the operator (as always) provides security to his direct front. Operator ❷ secures the top row of stairs. Operator 3 secures the loft area. If a loft area does not exist, Operator ❸ secures the top of the second row of stairs. If the team is descending, each operator has the same area of responsibility, except that the bottom of the stairway is secured, as opposed to the top.

Stairs with split level landings that have a space allowing a view through to the top from below should be cleared as follows:
Operator ❶ stands on the first level looking up covering the space between the stairs as operator
takes point and clears ahead of the train to the next landing, where he stops and takes an upward cover position. The train moves up the stairs past operator who falls in at the rear. He is now the last man. He will take the position walking backwards covering the rear. Once the train reaches operators 's position, the operator in front of the train takes over the point and moves to the next landing while operator now covers the space above the moving train. During movement, the train always moves close to the wall, under the staircase, out of sight and enemy fire. The operators covering the movement must stand in view so that they can see through the spaces to the top and bottom of the stairs.

Internal stairs with no gap between them are normally cleared using a one man clearance. An operator will clear ahead of the train.

External stairs are primarily are located on a main superstructure. The best method for clearing stairs is with a four man clearance team. The standard operating procedure is as follows: Left, right, forward, and back. Operator ❶ always clears left, operator
always clears right. Operator in the stack clears forward. Operator ❹ clears back. This way 360 degrees of security is maintained.

COMMUNICATION

When entering a room, communication is required between the team members in order to clear it quickly and move to the next objective. When either scanning the room or providing security for possible threats, the team members cannot shift their attention around the room to assess the current situation. To solve this problem, the team leader calls for a status after he determines that no immediate threat exists. This status or situation report consists of each clearing operator's current condition and any possible threat in his sector. Operator states his situation to the rest of the team, then operator follows with his report and so on. The team leader absorbs all this information and then gives directions based on the information. The conversation should be at a level that each team member may hear, but no louder. If operator fails to sound off, operator states his status. If operator is down, the team will know it. If operator fails to sound off due to a mental lapse, he may give a SITREP once the other team members have given theirs.

Read more of this in SIGNALS found on the menu on the top of this page.

SECURE UNKNOWNS

The clearing team secures and identifies all personnel found in a room or building that is being cleared. Until identified, they approach non-combatants in the same manner as combatants.

Read more of this in HAND 2 HAND found on the menu on the top of this page

GENERAL RULES

No matter what the room configuration, there are a few rules that should always be followed. These rules include the following:

● It does not matter if the person in front of you goes the wrong way when entering the room. Just go the opposite way of the operator in front of you and it will work out.

● Enter the room as quickly and smoothly as possible and do not waste movements. Remember smooth is fast. The faster each team member picks up their initial point of aim, the more difficult it becomes for the defender. Even a prepared defender can be caught off guard.

● Clear, do not stop, the fatal funnel. Operator & are especially prone to stopping in the funnel.

● Ensure that the doorway is completely cleared before assuming a final position in the room.

●Stay focused. Never stop scanning your sector for targets unless:
a) You identify a threat in your sector. This threat could be an open door leading to an uncleared room, a person in the room other than one of the team members, an obstacle that cannot be cleared visually from your position, or anything else that you may determine as a threat. If such a threat exists, provide security for the team by covering it with your weapon.

b) You are ordered by the team leader to perform another task.

● Ensure that if you fall down while entering the room, you stay down and do not move. Do not get up until a team member places his hands on you and lifts you up. If a team member arbitrarily gets up, he may become an impairment to the rest of the team's movements. Another possibility is that you would rise into the path of a team member's bullet.

● Rehearse communication. As stated above, speed and momentum will make or break this type of action. Poor communication techniques will slow your building clearing to a crawl.

● Ensure that each team member knows the procedures for each position. After the first room is cleared in a multi room objective, a team member may find that he is in a different position in the stack than when the assault started.

●The team leader should always attempt to avoid being operator when entering a room. This can normally be accomplished, but in some situations it will be unavoidable.

● Ensure that you never enter a room alone. Two operators are the minimum, for a room-clearing team. If two operators are entering a room (either due to the size of the room or attrition), they should assume the operator and operator positions.

● Ensure that you never flag a fellow team member. Flagging is defined as pointing your weapon at or sweeping your weapon across another team member. Muzzle awareness, at all times, is imperative.

Short Reminder:
● Move tactically and silently while securing the corridors to the room to be cleared. Carry only the minimum amount of equipment.
●Arrive undetected at the entry to the room in the correct order of entrance and be prepared to enter on a single command.
● Enter quickly and dominate the room. Move immediately to positions that allow complete control of the room and provide unobstructed fields of fire.
● Eliminate the enemy in the room by fast, accurate fire.
● Gain and maintain immediate control of the situation and all personnel in the room.
● Confirm whether enemy casualties are wounded or dead. Disarm and segregate the wounded. Search all enemy casualties. Handcuff everyone.
● Perform a cursory search of the room. Determine if a detailed search is required.
● Evacuate all wounded and any friendly dead.
● Mark the room as cleared using a simple, clearly identifiable marking according to the unit SOP.
● Maintain security and be prepared to react to more enemy contact at any moment. Do not neglect rear security.

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